In the world of electronics, schematics show a graphical representation of an electronic circuit. They can be used to convey information about each component, their position, or just what they are connected to. This information becomes very useful when trying to construct an electronics project as it like a roadmap to the completion of the project.


Multimeters are a useful tool when it comes to testing or troubleshooting electronics. Most multimeters give access to a variety of features such as testing voltage, current, or resistance. For example, a multimeter can test if a battery is dead by checking if its voltage is usable. If a battery’s voltage, as measured by a multimeter, drops below 60% of its rated voltage, then it is unlikely to be usable in devices that require that voltage. LEDs, however, may still emit light if a connected battery is below 60%, increasing the longevity of our simpler projects.

Conductors and Insulators

Electric current flows from conductor to conductor in order to create a circuit. Insulators serve to block the flow of current, effectively turning off part of the circuit. While insulators can be created with nonconductive material like rubber, it is often easier to use a button or switch to control the flow instead of manually applying or removing an insulator each time.


LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, come in many different sizes and are responsible for efficiently producing light in many of today’s electronics. Commonly found in status indicators or miniature displays, LEDs are inexpensive alternatives to incandescent, fluorescent, and halogen bulbs. While light-bulb sized LEDs do exist, our projects will utilize much smaller ones that require a tiny amount of power to run.